Inconsistent and confusing
Previous studies on diet and prostate cancer have been inconsistent. Most do suggest there may be a link with dairy and an increased risk of prostate cancer but some have found no link. Others have even associated dairy with a reduced risk! The researchers in this study only concluded that there may be a link between dairy. We would need more studies to confirm whether there is a definite link. Additionally, studies on dairy and prostate cancer risk are particularly difficult as researchers often have to estimate the dairy intake of participants so some results may not be accurate.
What does a ‘link’ mean?
Finally, finding a link does not necessarily mean that it is dairy consumption which causes or leads to prostate cancer. There may be other important factors at play which we don’t know about and the link to dairy consumption may just be a coincidence. For example, it may be that individuals with high dairy intake are more likely to smoke or less likely to exercise. On the other hand, individuals who follow a plant-based or vegan diet for health reasons may be more health-conscious in general, leading to the lower risk.